Probing Bulk Band Structure using ARPES


© Scienta Omicron

Schematic illustration of the electron mean free path as a function of kinetic energy.

Author: Chuck Fadley, A.X. Gray and C. Papp Institute: Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena
Date: 2018
Instruments: R4000

Traditionally, angular resolved photoemission (ARPES) is used to study the band structure of materials. The photon range used normally makes the technique surface sensitive. In order to increase the bulk sensitivity of the technique, ARPES spectra could be acquired using higher excitation energies. As the energies are increased the demands of the analyser, in terms of energy and angular resolution, is increasing. In this application note we present data from Chuck Fadley and co-workers, recorded using VG Scienta hemispherical analysers, showing band structure for > 1keV kinetic energies and true hard x-ray (HAX) angular resolved spectra at 6 KeV: data that have revolutionized the method of ARPES as it now allows probing the true bulk band character of a material.