HAXPES Lab System  | © Scienta Omicron
The HAXPES Lab offers a complete solution optimized for the study of the structural and chemical properties of bulk and/or interfaces of materials.

HAXPES Lab

A Window to the Bulk

PESXPSHAXPES

  • Robust laboratory-based HAXPES solution with a high flux monochoromated X-ray source of 9.25 keV
  • Measurement time scales comparable to synchrotron experiments
  • Access to deep core levels, buried interfaces and the bulk of the material

Scienta Omicron's HAXPES Lab brings hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) capability directly to the local laboratory environment. Using world class technology and expert engineering, the HAXPES Lab sets the standard for laboratory based high energy photoelectron spectroscopy. This novel system probes bulk samples properties and accesses deep core level electrons via photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without the need for a synchrotron end station. 

HAXPES Lab is designed to allow hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements in standard lab environments. The instrument offers the unique possibility to investigate bulk properties of various materials, analyse buried interfaces and access deep core levels. HAXPES Lab is a convenient to use turnkey UHV system which includes a 9.25 keV monochromated Ga Liquid Metal X-ray Source and a EW4000 energy analyser allowing for analysis in the full kinetic energy range up to 9252 eV. 

More Information

Study Bulk and Interfaces in your Home Laboratory

Graph of HAXPES using the Ga source  | © Scienta Omicron
HAXPES using the Ga source offers 5x greater information depth, providing bulk sensitivity that is unavailable using conventional XPS.

Photoelectron spectroscopy is a well-established tool for analysing a wide range of chemical and material properties. Traditional photoelectron spectroscopy instruments employ low energy X-ray sources limiting the kinetic energy of the photo-emitted electrons. Low kinetic energy electrons have short inelastic mean free paths (IMFP), confining analysis by traditional instruments to the top several nanometers of a material‘s surface. HAXPES, using higher kinetic energies, greatly extends the analysis depth.

While HAXPES measurements have been successfully deployed at synchrotrons, obtaining access to the required end stations is a significant challenge. The HAXPES Lab solves this problem and serves as a complete analytical tool by bringing cutting edge HAXPES directly to the end user’s laboratory. Complimentary soft X-ray sources and charge neutralisation are available. A comparison between different lab sources highlights the information depth advantage the Ga source provides. Information depth is defined as the region in which 90 % of the total signal originates. Beyond this advantage the monochromated Ga X-ray source provides higher flux than alternative hard X-ray lab sources.

Graphical diagram of the photoemission process  | © Scienta Omicron
Sketch of the photoemission process for a sample excited with soft- and hard X-rays. Electrons excited with higher photon energies have a smaller probability to scatter while escaping the sample.

Proof of Principal Measurements

Graph of a scan of a gold sample using HAXPES  | © Scienta Omicron
A long-range scan of a gold sample shows the capabilities of the system.

The higher energy of the Ga Kα X-rays is exploited by the high intensity of the Excillum Ga liquid jet source provides a wider energy range than standard Al K Kα X-rays and deeper core levels can be reached, and at the same total instrument energy resolution as a standard monochromatized XPS instrument, allowing for high resolution HAXPES measurements in the home laboratory.

The higher penetration depth of Ga Kα X-rays is exploited by the high intensity of the Excillum Ga liquid jet source providing the greatest depth sensitivity from any laboratory hard X-ray system. As shown in the figure, the metal silicon peak is still visible through 50 nm of SiO2. Chemical information from deeper into the bulk than possible from Al or Cr based sources is possible in the HAXPES Lab with efficient time scales. 

Graph of the measurement of the Au 3d | © Scienta Omicron
The high-resolution measurement of the Au 3d states was acquired in 25 min.
Graph of the Fermi edge of Au  | © Scienta Omicron
Fermi edge of Au shows total instrument resolution < 0.5 eV.
Graph of Si 1s spectra | © Scienta Omicorn
Si 1s spectra from native silicon with one monolayer of SiO2 compared to spectra of silicon with 50 nm SiO2. Measurement time is less than 8 minutes.

Forefront of Materials Research

Graph of the Ti 1s spectrum | © Scienta Omicron
HAXPES Lab provides unprecedented access to deep core levels, as shown in this example of a Ti 1s spectrum.

The HAXPES Lab places the user at the forefront of materials research with its novel analytical capabilities. Unprecedented measurements of bulk electrical and chemical properties are now possible. Users can easily execute a chemical analysis of real world samples without the need for destructive and artifact inducing surface preparation steps.

This capability is critical for many high impact measurements, including properly analysing buried layers in energy harvesting devices and batteries. Shown in Figure is a deep core Ti1S spectra from a single crystal rutile sample with a binding energy of 4969.7 eV. This measurement was acquired by HAXPES Lab in 35 minutes.

A real-world HAXPES Lab example analysis is shown in Figure on a complex oxide transistor stack. This structure exploits the presence of a 2D electron gas at the interface between the In2O3 and ZnO. Al 1s peaks are measurable, even when the Al is buried 33 nm deep. Core level Zr and In peaks, unmeasurable with standard XPS, are easy to find. These measurements were taken over 2-4 hours, thus proving the practical capabilities of the HAXPES Lab.

Graph and illustration of the complex oxide transistor stack  | © Scienta Omicron
Complex oxide transistor stack analysis acquired in 2-4 hours. The figures show the different core levels (including deep levels) with the Al 1s peaks from 33 nm deep clearly resolved.

An Instrument Designed for your Research

Labelled diagram of the HAXPES Lab System  | © Scienta Omicron
HAXPES Lab. 

The HAXPES Lab‘s compact design ensures that it is an efficient solution for laboratory based measurements. Fast and simple sample introduction is matched with a motorised analysis stage, resulting in an efficient and easy to use system. HAXPES Lab can further be equipped with a number of axial equipment, e.g. soft X-ray sources and charge neutralisation are available, be extended with, for example preparation chambers, and integrated into the Materials Innovations Platform (MIP), where instrumentation for growth and detailed characterization of samples in-situ are combined in one platform.

Scienta Omicron‘s service contracts and worldwide service network provides ready support for our customers in all major markets.

Results

Evaluation of Sn-Doped Indium Oxide Film and Interface Properties on a-Si Formed by Reactive Plasma Deposition

Evaluation of Sn-Doped Indium Oxide Film and Interface Properties on a-Si Formed by Reactive Plasma Deposition

2019

Aiming to improve the performance of heterojunction Si solar cells, we evaluated the Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) / a-Si structure using conventional and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, HAXPES), and the cause of the solar...

Reference systems

HAXPES and ESCA2SR System with the HAXPES Lab, Customised XPS,  EW4000, ARGUS,  XM 1000, and HIS 13 components  | © Scienta Omicron
172812

HAXPES Lab combined with XPS Lab

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HAXPES Lab and Metal Jet  | © Scienta Omicron
180907

HAXPES Lab for Buried Interface Research

The system is used to study buried interfaces. The objective of the research is to improve the performance of solar cells and components based on semiconductor nanotechnology through the study of buried interfaces. The use of buried interfaces instead of surface layers could be a solution for improving the stability, quality and e.g. to push the performance of materials, such as electronic devices.

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HAXPES Lab  Metal Jet | © Scienta Omicron
131016

HAXPES Lab

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HAXPES Lab: A Window to the Bulk

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Scienta Omicron‘s HAXPES Lab brings hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) capability directly to the local laboratory environment. This novel system probes bulk sample properties and accesses deep core level electrons via photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without the need for a synchrotron end station. Using world class technology and expert engineering, the HAXPES Lab sets the standard for laboratory based high energy photoelectron spectroscopy.

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