The EFM 3i Electron Beam Evaporator | © Scienta Omicron
The EFM 3i Electron Beam Evaporator.
Technical Drawing of the EFM 3 E-Beam Evaporator  | © Scienta Omicron
Technical drawing of the EFM 3i electron beam evaporator.

EFM 3i (IBAD)

Specifically Designed to Work with Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD)

PVDEBPVD

  • Ion focusing lens for Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD)
  • Ion suppression
  • Evaporation area Ø 4 - 20 mm
  • Flux monitor and integrated shutter
  • Rear-loading of evaporation material as rod or in crucible
  • Ease-of-operation with Lab VIEW TM –based Epitass® software
  • Crucible temperature display

The EFM 3i is specifically designed to facilitate layer-by-layer growth in cases where it does not occur naturally. It allows for the controlled evaporation of the target material and the simultaneous generation of ions to create additional surface defects (Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD)).

Based on the successful design of the EFM 3, the EFM 3i is specifically designed to facilitate layer-by-layer growth in cases where it does not occur naturally. It allows for the controlled evaporation of the target material and the simultaneous generation of ions to create additional surface defects (Ion-Beam- Assisted Deposition (IBAD)). The ions can be produced either by an intrinsic process from the evaporated target material, or from inert gases with the help of an integrated gas inlet. The ions are focused onto the substrate by an electro-static lens. This focusing lens can adjust the ratio of ions to neutrals within the deposition area at the target and hence the additionally induced defect density.

Alternatively sensitive substrate materials can be protected against ion bombardment by a repelling lens voltage (see EFM 3s). The dedicated EVC 300i power supply supports not only the evaporation process but also supplies the additional lens voltage and includes a sample current meter. Due to the special design of the ionization region the max. crucible size is limited compared to the EFM 3.

More Information

Evaporator Characteristics & Results

Graph output comparing the flat top diameter of the EFM 3, EFM 4 and EFM 6. The EFM 3 flat top diameter is smallest with 10mm.  | © Scienta Omicron
EFM 3: Flat top diameter 10 mm, (Nozzle - sample distance 90 mm, Mo-crucible 8 mm diameter) EFM 4: Flat top diameter 36 mm, (Nozzle - sample distance 90 mm, Mo-crucible 8 mm diameter)

EFM-Series Spot Profiles 

Graph output demonstrating the stable conditions that are possible using the EVC 300 flux monitoring system | © Scienta Omicron
Stable conditions: The EVC 300 flux monitoring system provides precise control of the evaporant flux. The regulation parameters can be adjusted to ensure excellent response even with rapid changes of the flux setting as demonstrated here.

Reproducable and Stable Flux Control 

Graph displaying the deposition area as a function of distance for three different standard aperture sizes ,EFM 3, EFM 4 and EFM 3T. | © Scienta Omicron
Deposition area as a function of distance for three different standard aperture sizes for EFM 3, EFM 4 and EFM 3T.

Deposition area vs. distance to sample 

Graph of typical crucible temperatures as measured for various high voltages that were attained using the EFM.   | © Scienta Omicron
Typical crucible temperatures (averaged) as measured for various high voltages. W-crucibles of given type were used.
Graphical 3D display and graph output of the results of an experiment performed using the EFM 3i | © Scienta Omicron
(A) 3D view of the Al13Co4(100) surface dosed with 2.6 ML of Bi (300 × 300 nm2). (B) Height histogram of the Bi film showing the three specific island heights.
3D Graphical representation STM image of the CuPc molecules on on NaCl/Cu (100) @ 5 K  | © Prof. I. Swart, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
STM image of CuPc molecules (Copperphthalocyanine) on NaCl/Cu (100) @ 5 K. Data acquired by the group of Prof. I. Swart, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
3D representation of the sub-monolayer of CaF2 on Si(111) imaged with STM | ©  P. Rahe, P. Moriarty (University of Nottingham)
Sub-monolayer of CaF2 on Si(111) Imaged with STM P. Rahe, P. Moriarty (University of Nottingham)

EFM 3i: Improvement for layer by layer growth 

Graph of results for deposition of Co onto Cu(111) using Scienta Omicron's EFM 3i | ©  J.Kirschner, H. Engelhard, and D. Hartung, Rev. Sci. Instrum., Vol. 73, No. 11, November 2002
Results for deposition of Co onto Cu(111) are given in panels (a) - (c). Shown is the intensity of the (00) electron beam using medium energy electron diffraction as a function of time after opening the shutter. The sample temperature is 80 °C in all cases. a) Operation of the source in the MBE mode. There is only one minor maximum visible. This result is typical for three-dimensional growth. b) Operation in the ion beam assisted deposition mode using self-ions. A number of oscillations are visible on a rising background, indicating an intermediate stage between three-dimensional growth and layer-by-layer growth. c) Operation in the pulsed IBAD mode with Xe gas added. The ion beam is switched on for 25 s at the beginning and near each maximum, indicated by the short horizontal bars. A good layer-by-layer growth is achieved. J.Kirschner, H. Engelhard, and D. Hartung, Rev. Sci. Instrum., Vol. 73, No. 11, November 2002

Electronics & Software

Graphical User Interface of the Epitass® Software, that is supported on the EFM 3i.  | © Epitass®
GUI of user-friendly Epitass® Software.

The microprocessor controlled EVC 300i power supplies in combination with the Epitass® software  make the operation of all EFM-type UHV evaporators very convenient and safe. With up to 300 W power and up to 1 kV output they are sufficient for the evaporation of any desired material.

The EVC 300i power supply provides a regulated fi lament emission current down to 1 mA in order to precisely regulate crucible temperatures down to 100 °C e.g. for molecules (see front page). Between 100 °C and 800 °C the temperature stability is 0.1 °C or better.

The dedicated EVC 300i power supply supports not only the evaporation process but also supplies the additional lens voltage and includes a sample current meter. Due to the special design of the ionization region the max. crucible size is limited compared to the EFM 3/4.

As a unique feature Epitass® software has a temperature display providing the actual crucible temperature.

The EVC 300i power supplies come with full flux regulator in addition to the emission current regulator which can be programmed for constant flux or integral flux values.

All parameters of the EVC power supplies including those for the optional motorised shutter can be set manually on the front panel or via the Lab VIEW™-based Epitass® software.

For Multilayer growth or co-evaporation from different cells several EVC power supplies need to be controlled. This functionality is provided by the MultiEpitass® software which can control up to four different cells mastering the individual Epitass® software of each EVC power supply. All evaporators can be equipped with a motorised shutter which is either mounted at the factory or can easily be refitted by the customer.

EVC 300-2 power supply with control display unit | © Focus
EVC 300-2 power supply with control display.

Evaporants

The EFM e-beam evaporators originally have been designed for ultra-pure evaporation of magnetic materials such as Fe, Co, Cr, Mn and Ni as sub-monolayer and multilayer thin films. Materials like Pt, Ag, Au, Al, Ti, Ta, W and semiconductors, e.g. silicon, can be evaporated with the highest purity. Recent innovations allow using the EFM 3 or EFM 3i for a broader range of materials than ever before. In order to handle larger rods an optional 50 mm z-shift is available.

Other materials are:

  • Organics (down to individual molecules)
  • Insulators such as CaF2

Specifications

Temperature range

100 °C - 3300 °C

Evaporation type

Rods and crucibles

Evaporation area

Ø 4 – 20 mm

Material feed

By z-shift

Shutter

Integral part of base package

Bake out Temperature

Up to 250 °C

Mounting flange

DN 40 CF

Insertion length

210 mm

IBAD (Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition)

Ion focusing lens and ion suppression

Optional

Co-deposition package with shutter motor and multi-pocket control

Special length

Valve for gas in-let

For full specifications and more information about product options, please do not hesitate to contact your local sales representative.

Services & Spare-parts

Find more Spare-parts